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A New Methodology for Free-Response ESP Testing Outwith the Laboratory: Findings from Experienced Participants

Deborah L. Delanoy, Caroline A. Watt, Robert L. Morris
- Department of Psychology University of Edinburgh
Richard Wiseman
Psychology Division, Hatfield Campus - University of Hertfordshire

Proceedings of the 36th Convention of the Parapsychological Association, Toronto, Aug. 1993, pp.204-221.

A new free-response ESP methodology, suggested by previous research conducted by the first three authors, is described, and the primary overall results from a study testing its efficacy in eliciting positive psi scoring are presented. The new methodology enables testing of participants outwith the laboratory. It allows the participant to choose when, where and how each trial is conducted. Thus, participants have control over the circumstances surrounding each session, and are free to vary the conditions of each session as they wish. The methodology enables participants to have in their possession: the actual target, enclosed in a secure container; a judging pack; and it provides a means for them to obtain feedback once they have completed the judging procedure, including the provision of immediate feedback if desired. A study is being conducted in which twelve participants have contributed 432 trials to date. The first three authors were the experimenters and also acted as participants, although their data are not counted in the primary measure of the study, as they were atypical of the other participants in several respects. The nine non-staff participants have currently contributed 366 trials, obtaining significant, positive psi scoring (p = 0.01, one-tailed, exact binomial).